When All Else Fails

The History of US Human Experimentation


1931: Dr. Cornelius Rhoads, under the auspices of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Investigations, infects human subjects with cancer cells. He later goes on to establish the U.S. Army Biological Warfare facilities in Maryland, Utah, and Panama, and is named to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. While there, he begins a series of radiation exposure experiments on American soldiers and
civilian hospital patients.

1932: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study begins. 200 black
men diagnosed with syphilis are never told of their illness, are denied
treatment, and instead are used as human guinea pigs in order to follow
the progression and symptoms of the disease. They all subsequently die
from syphilis, their families never told that they could have been

1935: The Pellagra Incident. After millions of
individuals die from Pellagra over a span of two decades, the U.S.
Public Health Service finally acts to stem the disease. The director of
the agency admits it had known for at least 20 years that Pellagra is
caused by a niacin deficiency but failed to act since most of the deaths
occured within poverty-striken black populations.

1940: Four hundred prisoners in Chicago are infected
with Malaria in order to study the effects of new and experimental drugs
to combat the disease. Nazi doctors later on trial at Nuremberg cite
this American study to defend their own actions during the Holocaust.

1942: Chemical Warfare Services begins mustard gas
experiments on approximately 4,000 servicemen. The experiments continue
until 1945 and made use of Seventh Day Adventists who chose to become
human guinea pigs rather than serve on active duty.

1943: In response to Japan’s full-scale germ warfare program, the U.S. begins research on biological weapons at Fort Detrick, MD.

1944: U.S. Navy uses human subjects to test gas masks
and clothing. Individuals were locked in a gas chamber and exposed to
mustard gas and lewisite.

1945: Project Paperclip is initiated. The U.S. State
Department, Army intelligence, and the CIA recruit Nazi scientists and
offer them immunity and secret identities in exchange for work on top
secret government projects in the United States.

1945: “Program F” is implemented by the U.S. Atomic
Energy Commission (AEC). This is the most extensive U.S. study of the
health effects of fluoride, which was the key chemical component in
atomic bomb production. One of the most toxic chemicals known to man,
fluoride, it is found, causes marked adverse effects to the central
nervous system but much of the information is squelched in the name of
national security because of fear that lawsuits would undermine
full-scale production of atomic bombs.

1946: Patients in VA hospitals are used as guinea
pigs for medical experiments. In order to allay suspicions, the order is
given to change the word “experiments” to “investigations” or
“observations” whenever reporting a medical study performed in one of
the nation’s veteran’s hospitals.

1947: Colonel E.E. Kirkpatrick of the U.S. Atomic
Energy Comission issues a secret document (Document 07075001, January 8,
1947) stating that the agency will begin administering intravenous
doses of radioactive substances to human subjects.

1947: The CIA begins its study of LSD as a potential
weapon for use by American intelligence. Human subjects (both civilian
and military) are used with and without their knowledge.

1950: Department of Defense begins plans to detonate
nuclear weapons in desert areas and monitor downwind residents for
medical problems and mortality rates.

1950: In an experiment to determine how susceptible
an American city would be to biological attack, the U.S. Navy sprays a
cloud of bacteria from ships over San Franciso. Monitoring devices are
situated throughout the city in order to test the extent of infection.
Many residents become ill with pneumonia-like symptoms.

1951: Department of Defense begins open air tests
using disease-producing bacteria and viruses. Tests last through 1969
and there is concern that people in the surrounding areas have been

1953: U.S. military releases clouds of zinc cadmium
sulfide gas over Winnipeg, St. Louis, Minneapolis, Fort Wayne, the
Monocacy River Valley in Maryland, and Leesburg, Virginia. Their intent
is to determine how efficiently they could disperse chemical agents.

1953: Joint Army-Navy-CIA experiments are conducted
in which tens of thousands of people in New York and San Francisco are
exposed to the airborne germs Serratia marcescens and Bacillus glogigii.

1953: CIA initiates Project MKULTRA. This is an
eleven year research program designed to produce and test drugs and
biological agents that would be used for mind control and behavior
modification. Six of the subprojects involved testing the agents on
unwitting human beings.

1955: The CIA, in an experiment to test its ability
to infect human populations with biological agents, releases a bacteria
withdrawn from the Army’s biological warfare arsenal over Tampa Bay, Fl.

1955: Army Chemical Corps continues LSD research,
studying its potential use as a chemical incapacitating agent. More than
1,000 Americans participate in the tests, which continue until 1958.

1956: U.S. military releases mosquitoes infected with
Yellow Fever over Savannah, Ga and Avon Park, Fl. Following each test,
Army agents posing as public health officials test victims for effects.

1958: LSD is tested on 95 volunteers at the Army’s Chemical Warfare Laboratories for its effect on intelligence.

1960: The Army Assistant Chief-of-Staff for
Intelligence (ACSI) authorizes field testing of LSD in Europe and the
Far East. Testing of the european population is code named Project THIRD
CHANCE; testing of the Asian population is code named Project DERBY

1965: Project CIA and Department of Defense begin
Project MKSEARCH, a program to develop a capability to manipulate human
behavior through the use of mind-altering drugs.

1965: Prisoners at the Holmesburg State Prison in
Philadelphia are subjected to dioxin, the highly toxic chemical
component of Agent Orange used in Viet Nam. The men are later studied
for development of cancer, which indicates that Agent Orange had been a
suspected carcinogen all along.

1966: CIA initiates Project MKOFTEN, a program to test the toxicological effects of certain drugs on humans and animals.

1966: U.S. Army dispenses Bacillus subtilis variant
niger throughout the New York City subway system. More than a million
civilians are exposed when army scientists drop lightbulbs filled with
the bacteria onto ventilation grates.

1967: CIA and Department of Defense implement Project
MKNAOMI, successor to MKULTRA and designed to maintain, stockpile and
test biological and chemical weapons.

1968: CIA experiments with the possibility of
poisoning drinking water by injecting chemicals into the water supply of
the FDA in Washington, D.C.

1969: Dr. Robert MacMahan of the Department of
Defense requests from congress $10 million to develop, within 5 to 10
years, a synthetic biological agent to which no natural immunity exists.

1970: Funding for the synthetic biological agent is
obtained under H.R. 15090. The project, under the supervision of the
CIA, is carried out by the Special Operations Division at Fort Detrick,
the army’s top secret biological weapons facility. Speculation is raised
that molecular biology techniques are used to produce AIDS-like

1970: United States intensifies its development of
“ethnic weapons” (Military Review, Nov., 1970), designed to selectively
target and eliminate specific ethnic groups who are susceptible due to
genetic differences and variations in DNA.

1975: The virus section of Fort Detrick’s Center for
Biological Warfare Research is renamed the Fredrick Cancer Research
Facilities and placed under the supervision of the National Cancer
Institute (NCI) . It is here that a special virus cancer program is
initiated by the U.S. Navy, purportedly to develop cancer-causing
viruses. It is also here that retrovirologists isolate a virus to which
no immunity exists. It is later named HTLV (Human T-cell Leukemia

1977: Senate hearings on Health and Scientific
Research confirm that 239 populated areas had been contaminated with
biological agents between 1949 and 1969. Some of the areas included San
Francisco, Washington, D.C., Key West, Panama City, Minneapolis, and St.

1978: Experimental Hepatitis B vaccine trials,
conducted by the CDC, begin in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco.
Ads for research subjects specifically ask for promiscuous homosexual

1981: First cases of AIDS are confirmed in homosexual
men in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco, triggering speculation
that AIDS may have been introduced via the Hepatitis B vaccine

1985: According to the journal Science (227:173-177),
HTLV and VISNA, a fatal sheep virus, are very similar, indicating a
close taxonomic and evolutionary relationship.

1986: According to the Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences (83:4007-4011), HIV and VISNA are highly similar and
share all structural elements, except for a small segment which is
nearly identical to HTLV. This leads to speculation that HTLV and VISNA
may have been linked to produce a new retrovirus to which no natural
immunity exists.

1986: A report to Congress reveals that the U.S.
Government’s current generation of biological agents includes: modified
viruses, naturally occurring toxins, and agents that are altered through
genetic engineering to change immunological character and prevent
treatment by all existing vaccines.

1987: Department of Defense admits that, despite a
treaty banning research and development of biological agents, it
continues to operate research facilities at 127 facilities and
universities around the nation.

1990: More than 1500 six-month old black and hispanic
babies in Los Angeles are given an “experimental” measles vaccine that
had never been licensed for use in the United States. CDC later admits
that parents were never informed that the vaccine being injected to
their children was experimental.

1994: With a technique called “gene tracking,” Dr.
Garth Nicolson at the MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX discovers
that many returning Desert Storm veterans are infected with an altered
strain of Mycoplasma incognitus, a microbe commonly used in the
production of biological weapons. Incorporated into its molecular
structure is 40 percent of the HIV protein coat, indicating that it had
been man-made.

1994: Senator John D. Rockefeller issues a report
revealing that for at least 50 years the Department of Defense has used
hundreds of thousands of military personnel in human experiments and for
intentional exposure to dangerous substances. Materials included
mustard and nerve gas, ionizing radiation, psychochemicals,
hallucinogens, and drugs used during the Gulf War .

1995: U.S. Government admits that it had offered
Japanese war criminals and scientists who had performed human medical
experiments salaries and immunity from prosecution in exchange for data
on biological warfare research.

1995: Dr. Garth Nicolson, uncovers evidence that the
biological agents used during the Gulf War had been manufactured in
Houston, TX and Boca Raton, Fl and tested on prisoners in the Texas
Department of Corrections.

1996: Department of Defense admits that Desert Storm soldiers were exposed to chemical agents.

1997: Eighty-eight members of Congress sign a letter demanding an investigation into bioweapons use & Gulf War Syndrome.